Cultural Anthropology final exam

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Answer the following questions.  Be sure to phrase your answers in complete sentences.  TURN IN YOUR EXAM AT MY OFFICE (FIFTH FLOOR, LIBRARY) DURING OR BEFORE THE EXAM PERIOD DESIGNATED FOR YOUR CLASS.

  1. In order to determine the probable accuracy of an ethnographic report, anthropology can ask two questions about the source of the report, and two questions about the context in which the reported behavior may occur.  What are those questions? (10 points)
  2. Cultures are logical systems.  However, logical inconsistency with the culture in which it is described is not proof that a culture trait is mistakenly ascribed to that culture.  Explain why not.  (5 points)
  3. Why is cultural anthropology interested in the distribution of culture traits?  Define “cultural universal.” (5 points)
  4. What invaluable service does George Peter Murdock’s Human Relations Area Files provide for cultural anthropology? (5 points)
  5. Is it ethnocentric to begin the process of cross cultural comparison from one’s own culture?  Explain your answer. (5 points)
  6. When anthropology engages in cross cultural comparison, it discovers that cultural systems vary be degree.  Why is that a problem for categorization?  How does anthropology solve the problem? (15 points)
  7. Demonstrate why anthropology places monogamy and polygyny in different subcategories. (5 points)
  8. If monogamy, polygyny, and polyandry all deserve to be placed in differentsubcategories, why does anthropology place them in the same category (marriage)? (5 points)
  9. Under what two conditions would anthropology be required to create a new subcategory of marriage called group marriage?  (5 points)
  10. In Anthony F. C. Wallace’s revitalization movement model, what did he mean by a steady state?  In a period of increased individual stress, why do individuals conform more perfectly to traditional standards of behavior? (5 points)
  11. In Wallace’s model, why do individuals feel an overwhelming sense of guilt in a period of cultural distortion?  (5 points)
  12. In Wallace’s model, by what process are prophets generated in the period of mazeway reformulation? Does the term “psychotic breakdown” indicate that these individuals are weak or deviant?  Explain.  (5 points)
  13. Why do followers believe in the validity of the prophet’s vision?  Why are followers typically more flexible than the prophet in their interpretation of the vision?  Why is their flexibility important to the success of the social movement based on the prophet’s vision?  (5 points)
  14. Why does the church decline in social importance in the period of routinization? (5 points)
  15. How are the steady state that begins Wallace’s model and the new steady state that ends it the same?  How are they different? (5 points)
  16. According to Wallace’s model, how often will revitalization happen in the history of any culture?  Is the new steady state an improvement over the steady state that it replaced?  Explain.  (5 points)
  17. According the Wallace’s model, religious experiences can be explained as the product of an intersection of psychology and culture.  Explain how.  What is the social function of religious beliefs?  Does Wallace’s model require one to believe that religion is, in fact, simply a socially useful trick played on human beings by their nature?  Explain your answer.  (10 points)
  18. EXTRA CREDIT #1:  In a period of cultural transformation, the community successfully transforms virtually all the other institutions in their culture into systems based on the prophet’s code and the church’s effective new patterns of organization and action.  That degree of social cooperation becomes impossible in the following period of routinization.  Why?  (5 points)
  19. EXTRA CREDIT #2:  Who is known as the “father of modern anthropology”?  Choose from:  a) George Washington; b) Edward Burnett Tyler; c)Edward Burnett Tailor; d) Edward Burnett Tylor; e) Sir Edward Burnett Taylor; f) Edward Everett Horton; or g) Miley Cyrus.  (1 point)
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